477-531: The Influence of Social Hierarchy on Primate Health -- Sapolsky 308 (5722): 648 -- Science
Dominance hierarchies occur in numerous social species, and rank within them can greatly influence the quality of life of an animal. In this review, I consider how rank can also influence physiology and health. I first consider whether it is high- or low-ranking animals that are most stressed in a dominance hierarchy; this turns out to vary as a function of the social organization in different species and populations. I then review how the stressful characteristics of social rank have adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences. Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status.
A review of 55 recent articles demonstrating the evolution of dominance hierarchies in primates, and drawing implications from that to humans. Evolution abounds.